Multiplication is essential to achieve new plants identical to the previous ones, in more juvenile states. Also, to ensure its cultivation in the season following the winter season. Either way, whether through seeds or vegetative parts, each species has its trick and its ideal form of multiplication.
When it comes to multiplying plants, we have several options:
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One of the most common and used. It stands out for its simplicity and for the ease of conservation of plant material (in some cases, for many years).
There are some plants that, due to their germination conditions, it is better indicated to avoid their reproduction by seeds. This is because either the germination percentage or germination viability is quite low, or the seed is covered by a hardened or lignified layer that delays germination. This forces special attention to be paid to conservation (either in the refrigerator or in cold conditions) or above all and when planting, to eliminate the lignified cuticle so that germination can occur (by softening by acids or moisture).
Multiplication by vegetative part
In a simplicated way when explaining it, it is to select a part of another plant and form a new one from that piece. Plant cells have the ability to contain all genetic content, unlike other organisms (such as animals). This allows to form a full floor (or even a tree) from a tiny piece of another similar species.
With this we will get identical plants, with the same genetic information, since the characteristics of two different specimens have not been mixed, as happens in pollination.
Within this system of multiply plants, there are several techniques:
Simple division of plants
There are plants that are composed of many others, such as seedlings, and that are joined by the root. If we are careful and do not generate wounds in them, it is possible to separate them, so that from a pot where we have medicinal or aromatic plants, it is possible to generate 2, 3 or 4 different and independent pots.
Effective method for multiplying plants such as: oregano, tarragon, and wormwood.
Multiplication by stakes
Stakes are fragments of stems, more or less lignified, which can be between 10 and 30 cm long. These stems are cut after the summer (in early autumn, for example), when pruned, and replanted in pots or in ideal conditions of multiplication (good humidity, lighting and pleasant temperature). During the winter they generate underground roots and from them you can get new plants that we can take to our garden.
Effective method for multiplying plants such as: basil, tarragon, lavender sage, rosemary or thyme.
Multiplication by stolons
The Runners they are like aerial stems (the ones we are used to seeing), but almost-underground. We can see them on the surface of the ground, creeping and stuck to the ground. Without burying them, they emit new roots and shoots, where from them we can obtain new plants. This is the case of mint, although it is also commonly done by division of plants.
Effective method for multiplying plants such as: mint (as a species) and tarragon.
Multiplication by bulbs
They are the underground organs of many plants, including medicinal or aromatic. There are different names to call the bulbs, such as tubers, tuberous roots, rhizomes, corms, etc.
A developed plant can produce several bulbs in the underground part. From there can occur the division or collection of these bulbs, whose conservation will ensure the production of new medicinal and aromatic plants in the future season.
Effective method for multiplying plants such as: saffron (and take advantage of all its properties) or ginger.
More appropriate multiplication of aromatic and medicinal plants
Savory (Satureja hortensis): multiplication through seeds, in spring or summer.
Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.): division of plants through Cuttings, in spring or summer.
Basil (Oncimum basilicum L.): obtaining new plants through seeds, in late summer or early autumn.
Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.): multiplication by seeds, in spring or late summer.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.): multiplication through seeds, in spring or summer.
Coriander (Coriander sativum L.): seeds, in spring (March and April).
Dill (Anethum graveolens L.): obtaining plants through seeds. in early summer.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.): seeds, from late spring to late summer.
Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L. ): seeds, division of bushes or stakes, in spring or summer.
Ginger (Zingiber officinalis Ross.): through the bulbs, in late September and early autumn.
Lavender (Lavandula officinalis): multiplication through cuttings, from spring to late summer.
Pink mauve (Pelargonium graveolens): obtaining new plants by stakes or through seeds, in spring and early summer.
Chamomile (Chamomilla L.): seeds, planted between June and September.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.): division through seeds or bushes. It can be done in spring.
English mint (Mentha piperita L.): division through stolons and rhizomes, in spring or summer.
Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.): obtaining plants through division of bushes, in spring, summer and autumn.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.): division of bushes, between spring and autumn (beginnings).
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.): division of bushes or stakes, from spring to early autumn.
Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): obtaining new plants through cuttings or division of bushes, in summer or early autumn.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.): various options, seeds, division of bushes or cuttings, in spring and summer.